Nephrotic Syndrome is usually caused by damage to the filters (glomeruli) in your kidneys. In normal case, the glomeruli in your kidneys are filtering blood as it flows through your kidneys and they can separate the useful things from wastes. Healthy glomeruli can keep proteins in blood to maintain the right amount of fluid in your body. However, once your glomeruli are damaged, they will allow too much blood proteins leak into urine thus resulting in Nephrotic Syndrome. The common causes of Nephrotic Syndrome could be listed as the following:
Primary causes of Nephrotic Syndrome
Minimal kidney disease: It is the most common cause of Nephrotic Syndrome in children. This disorder can result in abnormal renal function. However, the result of microscope test usually does not show abnormality.
Focal segemental glomerulosclerosis: A part of glomeruli in kidneys are scarred or sclerotic. It may result from another disease or a genetic defect or occur for no reason.
Membranous nephropathy: It refers to the thickening of glomerular membrane. Secondary causes of Nephrotic Syndrome
Diabetes Mellitus: Long-term high blood glucose can damage the filters in kidneys thus resulting in Nephrotic Syndrome.
Systemic lupus erythematosus( SLE): It is a autoimmune disorder than can involve multiple organs including kidneys. It can cause inflammation of glomeruli.
Amyloidosis: It is attributed to the proteins building up in blood and it can affect multiple organs including kidneys. It can damage the filters in kidneys thus resulting in Nephrotic Syndrome.
Viral infection: The common viral infections mainly include hepatitis B, hepatitis C etc.
Nephrotic Syndrome facts
Nephrotic Syndrome is not a single disease, but a syndrome with proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and swelling. The Nephrotic proteinuria is above 3.5 grams per day or more.
There are various causes of Nephrotic Syndrome. It is attributed to other kidney diseases such as minimal kidney disease, focal glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy etc. Nephrotic Syndrome can also be a result from systemic diseases that may involve kidneys besides other organs like diabetes, high blood pressure, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) etc.
Nephrotic Syndrome types
Minimal change disease
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis( FSGS)
Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis
Minimal change glomerulonephropathy( MCGN)
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