Mutations in the PKD1, PKD2, and PKHD1 genes cause autosomal dominant PKD and autosomal recessive PKD. Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), another type of PKD develops on its own. Kidney failure causes ACKD.
Faulty genes cause Polycystic Kidney Disease and the genetic defective genes run in the families. There are two different genetic flaws that lead to two types of PKD. PKD1, PKD2 and PKHD1 genes cause ADPKD (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease) and ARPKD (autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease).
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
ADPKD is the common type of PKD, which is affected by PKD1 and PKD2 genes. The faulty PKD1 and PKD2 gene lead polycystin-1and polycystin-2 proteins to generate. This causes the numerous cysts in the kidneys.
ADPKD is called adult PKD for it develops symptoms in one 30s and 40s. Children of ADPKD have at least 50% chance to get the faulty gene.
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease
ARPKD is less common which makes up about 10% of all cases of PKD. ARPKD is caused by PKHD1 gene which leads to generation of fibrocystin or polyductin proteins. It is considered that the mutated PKHD1 causes the formation of kidney cysts.
ARPKD is known as infantile PKD for its signs occur shortly after birth. Both parents need to have the disease in order for it passes along to the children and each child has 25% of chance of inheriting the disease.
In some cases, a person is with PKD without familial history of the disease. But this condition is rare to see.
● If you are considering having a baby, a genetic counselor can help you assess your risk of passing on the faulty PKD genes.
● Control your blood pressure. Monitor your blood pressure in regular. If your blood pressure elevates, take the medications suggested by your doctors.
● Manage a low-salt and low-fat diet. Eat more fresh vegetables and fruits, as we as whole grains. Avoid any foods that contain caffeine, such as chocolate, cola.
● Take regular exercise. Take 30-minute-exercise for 5~6 days of one week. Mild sports are suggested and patients should avoid any exercise that may harm your abdomen.
● Go to the doctor for check-up regularly. Doctor will check up your blood pressure, body fat level, cyst growth and development.
● Keep your weight in a healthy level.
● Avoid smoking or alcohol.
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